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Why women live longer than men?

Keisha Rosas (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so more than men do today, and ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور why have these advantages gotten bigger over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an unambiguous conclusion. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; however, we aren't sure how significant the impact to each of these variables is.

In spite of the precise amount of weight, we are aware that a large portion of the reason women live longer than men in the present and not in the past, has to have to do with the fact that several significant non-biological elements have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from every country could expect to live longer than her older brother.

This chart illustrates that, while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences are often significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

In wealthy countries, the women's advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at birth in the US in the years 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. and women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was very small however, it has grown significantly over time.

You can check if these are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.