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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Grazyna McNab (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? And how the advantage has grown in the past? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are biological, psychological and environmental variables that all play a role in women who live longer than men, we don't know how much each one contributes.

In spite of the precise amount of weight, we are aware that a large portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men but not previously, has to do with the fact that several significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for العاب زوجية survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from every country could expect to live longer than her brothers.

Interestingly, this chart shows that although the female advantage exists everywhere, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was smaller in developed countries that it is today.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancy at the time of birth in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two distinct points stand العاب زوجية out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very small, but it grew substantially over the course of the last century.

By selecting 'Change Country from the chart, you are able to verify that these two points also apply to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.