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Why do women live longer than men?

Jetta Tedesco (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live much longer than men today, and why does this benefit increase over time? The evidence is limited and صبغ الشعر بالاسود we only have some solutions. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we aren't sure how much the influence of each one of these factors is.

We know that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. But it is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - this means in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage exists across all countries, the global differences are significant. In Russia, صبغ الشعر بالاسود women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan, the difference is just half a year.

In the richer countries, the female advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. and women in the US live a lot, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was tiny, it has increased substantially over time.

When you click on the option "Change country by country' in the chart, check that these two points also apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.