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Why do women live longer than men?

Sanford Fernando (2022-04-18)

3e9758a8-0124-4cca-bc79-48c3fb295a4f.jpgEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women have a longer life span than men? Why does this benefit increase over time? The evidence isn't conclusive and we have only limited solutions. Although we know that there are biological, psychological and environmental factors which all play a part in women's longevity more than men, we don't know how much each one contributes.

We know that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. However, this is not because of certain non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for افضل شامبو وبلسم survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from any country can anticipate to live longer than her older brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that the advantage of women exists everywhere, the global differences are significant. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.

In rich countries the female advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below shows men and women's life expectancies at birth in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, افضل شامبو وبلسم there is an upward trend. and women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

Using the option 'Change country from the chart, verify that these two points apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.