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Why women live longer than men?

Jetta Tedesco (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men and why does this benefit increase in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an informed conclusion. We know there are behavioral, biological, and اوضاع الجماع environmental factors which play a significant role in women who live longer than males, it isn't clear the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of how much amount, we can say that at a minimum, the reason why women live so much longer than men but not previously, is to have to do with the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for اوضاع الجماع survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a new boy.1

This graph shows that while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be substantial. In Russia women are 10 years older than males; while in Bhutan the difference is less than half a year.

In the richer countries, the female advantage in longevity was smaller
Let's look at how the female advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancy at the time of birth in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Women and men in America live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was once extremely small It has significantly increased in the past.

You can check if these principles are also applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.