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Why women live longer than men?

Clarice Vivier (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? Why the advantage has grown in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach a definitive conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral and environmental variables which all play a part in women who live longer than males, ابر التخسيس we aren't sure what percentage each factor plays in.

It is known that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. However this isn't because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line ; this means that in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that although the female advantage exists everywhere, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was much lower in developed countries than it is now.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies at the birth in the US in the years 1790 until 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was tiny, ابر التخسيس it has increased substantially with time.

You can check if these principles are also applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.