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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Cathryn Richter (2022-04-18)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present and why is this difference growing over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an informed conclusion. While we are aware that there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors that play an integral role in women living longer than men, we do not know how much each one contributes.

It is known that women live longer than men, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور regardless of weight. However this isn't because of certain biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal line of parity - which means that in every country the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart below shows that although women have an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than males; while in Bhutan the gap is less than half a year.

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The advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was lower in countries with higher incomes than it is today.
We will now examine how the female advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart plots the male and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور (glorynote.com) female lifespans at birth in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. and women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small but it increased substantially over the last century.

Using the option 'Change country' on the chart, you will be able to confirm that the two points are applicable to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.725-9.jpg