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Why do women live longer than men?

Mellissa Rodman (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men and why is this difference growing over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an unambiguous conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we aren't sure how strong the relative contribution of each factor is.

We are aware that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. But, this is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, افضل كريم للشعر every country is above the diagonal parity line ; this means in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart above shows that, while the advantage for women exists in all countries, global differences are significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than males; while in Bhutan the difference is less than half one year.

In the richer countries, the longevity advantage for women used to be smaller
We will now examine the way that female advantages in longevity has changed with time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancies at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two things stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.

You can verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.999999.JPG