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Why do women live longer than men?

Verlene Higgins (2022-04-18)

1 year agoEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live more than men do today and how has this advantage increased in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological as well as environmental factors which all play a part in women living longer than men, we don't know what percentage each factor plays in.

In spite of the number of pounds, we know that a large portion of the reason why women live longer than men and not previously, has to be due to the fact that certain significant non-biological elements have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her brothers.

This graph shows that although there is a women's advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries could be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men. In Bhutan the difference is less than half each year.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was smaller in the richer countries that it is today.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two aspects stand كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in America have longer lives than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used to be very modest, but it grew substantially during the last century.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.