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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Cheryl Rechner (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? Why has this advantage gotten larger as time passes? There isn't much evidence and we have only some answers. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; however, افضل شامبو وبلسم we do not know how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.

5 years agoWe have learned that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. However this is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from every country could anticipate to live longer than her older brother.

The chart above shows that, while the advantage for women exists across all countries, the cross-country differences are large. In Russia women have a longer life span than males; while in Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

In countries with high incomes, the advantage of women in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's now look at how the advantage of women in longevity has changed with time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy at the birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be tiny, it has increased substantially over time.

You can confirm that these points are also applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, افضل شامبو وبلسم and Sweden.