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Why do women live longer than men?

Mellissa Rodman (2022-04-18)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women have a longer life span than men? What is the reason does this benefit increase in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support an absolute conclusion. We know there are biological, behavioral, and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور environmental factors that play an integral role in women living longer than men, we do not know how much each factor contributes.

In spite of the amount, we can say that at least part of the reason women live longer than men do today and not in the past, has to be due to the fact that some fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line - it means that in all nations the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that the advantage of women is present everywhere, cross-country differences are large. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.

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In rich countries the advantage of women in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's look at the way that female advantages in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two things stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men as well as women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

47101472804_202f3d135c.jpgThe second is that there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be extremely small however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.

You can verify that these are applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.