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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Mellissa Rodman (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women live longer than men? What is the reason is this difference growing as time passes? The evidence isn't conclusive and we have only partial solutions. We know there are biological, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور behavioral, and environmental factors which all play a part in women who live longer than males, it isn't clear how much each factor contributes.

In spite of the precise weight, we know that a large portion of the reason women live longer than men in the present however not as previously, has to be due to the fact that a number of important non-biological aspects have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line , it means that in all nations a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart below shows that although there is a women's advantage in all countries, the differences across countries could be significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

In countries with high incomes, the longevity advantage for women was previously smaller.
Let's now look at how the gender advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart plots the male and female lifespans at birth in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two areas stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Both genders living in America are living longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was once extremely small, it has increased substantially over time.

When you click on the option "Change country' on the chart, verify that these two points are also applicable to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.