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Why do women live longer than men?

Deanne Studer (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women have a longer life span than men? And why does this benefit increase over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an unambiguous conclusion. Although we know that there are behavioral, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور biological and environmental factors that play an integral role in the longevity of women over men, we do not know what percentage each factor plays in.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. But this isn't because of certain biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in every country can expect to live longer than her younger brother.

It is interesting to note that, while the advantage for women exists everywhere, the global differences are significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than males; while in Bhutan the difference is less than half an hour.

In countries with high incomes, the advantage of women in longevity was smaller
We will now examine how the gender advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two things stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy was once very small, it has increased substantially over time.

You can check if these points are also applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.