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Why do women live longer than men?

Roxanne Carruthers (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? Why the advantage has grown as time passes? The evidence is limited and تحاميل مهبلية we have only some solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; However, we're not sure how much the influence of each factor is.

In spite of how much amount of weight, we are aware that a large portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men in the present and not in the past, is to be due to the fact that certain important non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - it means that in all nations the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that although the female advantage is present everywhere, global differences are significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the gap is just half each year.

In rich countries the advantage of women in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's now look at how the gender advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below shows men and women's life expectancies when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two aspects stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. and women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: While the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be extremely small It has significantly increased in the past.

When you click on the option "Change country from the chart, determine if these two points apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.