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Why do women live longer than men?

Mellissa Rodman (2022-04-18)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women have a longer life span than men? Why does this benefit increase as time passes? The evidence is limited and we only have incomplete answers. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological as well as environmental factors that play an integral role in the longevity of women over men, زيوت تطويل الشعر we do not know how much each one contributes.

We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. However it is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her older brother.

This graph shows that although women have an advantage across all countries, زيوت تطويل الشعر differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

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The advantage for women in terms of life expectancy was lower in countries with higher incomes that it is today.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the men and women's life expectancies when they were born in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men in America live longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used be very small but it increased substantially over the course of the last century.

You can check if the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.