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Why do women live longer than men?

Giuseppe Pettigrew (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women have a longer life span than men? And why has this advantage gotten larger over time? There is only limited evidence and ابر التخسيس the evidence isn't sufficient to support a definitive conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, ابر التخسيس behavioral and environmental factors which play a significant role in women who live longer than men, we do not know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

50362981788_8b5c58902e.jpgIn spite of the amount of weight, we are aware that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men however not as in the past, has to do with the fact that some significant non-biological elements have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; which means that in every country that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage exists across all countries, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women are 10 years older than males; while in Bhutan the gap is just half each year.

In countries with high incomes, the women's advantage in longevity used to be smaller
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at birth in the US between 1790-2014. Two distinct points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy was tiny but it has risen significantly in the past.

It is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.