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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Wilford Tufnell (2022-04-18)


1 year agoEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live more than men do today and why has this advantage increased in the past? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors which all play a part in the longevity of women over males, it isn't clear the extent to which each factor plays a role.

We know that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for زيوت تطويل الشعر survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her younger brother.

This chart illustrates that, while there is a female advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be substantial. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

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In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity used to be smaller
Let's examine how the female advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy at birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US live a lot, زيوت تطويل الشعر much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was extremely small but it has risen significantly with time.

You can verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.