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Why women live longer than men?

Mike Steffey (2022-04-18)

-1-638.jpg?cb=1438549438Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men, and why does this benefit increase over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; but we don't know exactly how strong the relative contribution of each one of these factors is.

In spite of how much number of pounds, we know that a large portion of the reason women live longer than men however not as previously, is to relate to the fact that several key non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, العاب زوجية so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and العاب زوجية women. We can see that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her brothers.

It is interesting to note that while the female advantage exists everywhere, the global differences are significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is only half a year.

The advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was lower in countries with higher incomes than it is now.
Let's examine the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart compares the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in America live longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was very small but it has risen significantly over time.

You can confirm that these points are also applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.