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Why do women live longer than men?

Wilford Tufnell (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men in the present, and why has this advantage increased in the past? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an absolute conclusion. While we are aware that there are behavioral, biological as well as environmental factors that all play a role in women living longer than men, we don't know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the amount of weight, we are aware that at a minimum, the reason women live longer than men do today however not as previously, is to do with the fact that some important non-biological aspects have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and زيوت تطويل الشعر relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For زيوت تطويل الشعر ( example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can expect to live longer than her younger brother.

The chart above shows that while the female advantage is present everywhere, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men; in Bhutan the difference is less than half one year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was much lower in countries with higher incomes than it is today.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart compares the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two things stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy was quite small It has significantly increased in the past.

By selecting 'Change Country in the chart, you will be able to check that these two points also apply to the other countries having available data: Sweden, France and the UK.