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Why do women live longer than men?

Lilliana Kobayashi (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? Why does this benefit increase as time passes? The evidence is limited and we only have limited answers. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, however, we do not know what the contribution of each one of these factors is.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that a large portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men today and كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام not in the past, has to relate to the fact that certain important non-biological aspects have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries baby girls can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart below shows that although there is a women's advantage across all countries, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan, the difference is less that half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in countries with higher incomes as compared to the present.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two aspects stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the female advantage in life expectancy used to be extremely small however, it has grown significantly with time.

When you click on the option "Change country' on the chart, you can check that these two points are also applicable to the other countries having available data: Sweden, France and the UK.