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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Merlin Dunstan (2022-04-18)


\u0641\u0631\u0634\u0627\u0629 \u060c \u0641\u0631\u0634\u0627\u0629 \u0645\u0633\u0637\u062d\u0629 \u060c \u0641\u0631\u0634\u0627\u0629 \u0645\u062f\u0628\u0628\u0629 \u060c \u0631\u0633\u0645 \u060c \u062d\u0630\u0641 \u060c \u062f\u0647\u0627\u0646 ...Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live much longer than men today, and why have these advantages gotten bigger over time? The evidence is sketchy and we only have limited solutions. We know that behavioral, اوضاع الجماع biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer life spans than men, اوضاع الجماع however, we aren't sure what the contribution of each factor is.

We know that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However it is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

It is interesting to note that while the female advantage exists across all countries, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the gap is only half a year.

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The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in rich countries than it is now.
Let's look at the way that female advantages in longevity has changed with time. The following chart shows the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both genders in America have longer lives than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be extremely small however, it has increased significantly in the past century.

Using the option 'Change country by country' in the chart, determine if these two points also apply to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.