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Why are women living longer than men?

Magnolia Madrid (2022-04-18)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? Why the advantage has grown over time? The evidence is limited and we're only able to provide limited solutions. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don't know exactly how strong the relative contribution to each of these variables is.

In spite of the precise amount of weight, we are aware that a large portion of the reason women live so much longer than men do today and not previously, has to have to do with the fact that a number of significant non-biological elements have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from every country could expect to live longer than her brother.

The chart above shows that while the female advantage exists everywhere, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the difference is less than half each year.

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The advantage women had in terms of life expectancy was lower in rich countries than it is now.
Let's examine how the female advantage in longevity has changed with time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

You can verify that these principles are also applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.