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Why do women live longer than men?

Lori Menhennitt (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? What is the reason the advantage has grown as time passes? The evidence is limited and we're only able to provide some answers. We know there are behavioral, biological as well as environmental factors which all play a part in women's longevity more than men, we do not know the extent to which each factor صبغ الشعر بالاسود plays a role.

Independently of the exact number of pounds, we know that at least a portion of the reason why women live longer than men in the present and not in the past, has to be due to the fact that a number of key non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For صبغ الشعر بالاسود example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from any country can anticipate to live longer than her brothers.

The chart above shows that the advantage of women exists in all countries, global differences are significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half an hour.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was much lower in rich countries than it is now.
We will now examine how the female advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both genders in the United States live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be very small but it has risen significantly over time.

You can check if the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.