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Why women live longer than men?

Wilford Tufnell (2022-04-18)

\u0641\u0631\u0634\u0627\u0629 \u060c \u0641\u0631\u0634\u0627\u0629 \u0645\u0633\u0637\u062d\u0629 \u060c \u0641\u0631\u0634\u0627\u0629 \u0645\u062f\u0628\u0628\u0629 \u060c \u0631\u0633\u0645 \u060c \u062d\u0630\u0641 \u060c \u062f\u0647\u0627\u0646 ...Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men, and why has this advantage increased over time? The evidence is sketchy and we're only able to provide limited solutions. We know there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors that all play a role in women's longevity more than males, it isn't clear how much each factor contributes.

We know that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However this isn't because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries baby girls can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

It is interesting to note that the advantage of women exists everywhere, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

In the richer countries, the advantage of women in longevity was smaller
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two aspects stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increasing gap: علامات الحمل بولد The female advantage in life expectancy used be very small but it increased substantially during the last century.

You can verify that these principles are also applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.