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Why do women live longer than men?

Wilford Tufnell (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men? What is the reason is this difference growing in the past? The evidence isn't conclusive and we're only able to provide incomplete answers. We know that biological, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we aren't sure how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.

We are aware that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. However this is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart shows that, although there is a women's advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men; in Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was much lower in countries with higher incomes than it is today.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there's an upward trend: Men and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small but it increased substantially during the last century.

You can check if these points are also applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.