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Why do women live longer than men?

Wilford Tufnell (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women live longer than men? And how does this benefit increase as time passes? The evidence is limited and we only have partial answers. We know that behavioral, علامات الحمل بولد ( biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, however, we aren't sure how strong the relative contribution of each one of these factors is.

We know that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However this is not because of certain biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for علامات الحمل بولد survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.

This graph shows that even though women enjoy an advantage across all countries, differences between countries are often significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the difference is just half each year.

In the richer countries, the women's advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's examine how the gender advantage in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the men and women's life expectancies at the time of birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

There is an upward trend. as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small however, it has grown significantly over time.

When you click on the option "Change country' on the chart, you will be able to check that these two points are also applicable to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.\u062a\u062d\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0644 \u062c\u0627\u064a\u0646\u0648 \u0645\u064a\u0643\u0648\u0632\u0627\u0644 \u0644\u0644\u0641\u0637\u0631\u064a\u0627\u062a 400 \u0648 200 \u0645\u062c\u0645