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Why are women living longer than men?

Lilliana Kobayashi (2022-04-18)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live more than men do today and how have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an informed conclusion. We know there are behavioral, biological and environmental factors that all play a role in women living longer than men, we don't know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

We have learned that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. But this is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can be expected to live for longer than her brother.

The chart above shows that, while the advantage for women exists in all countries, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام cross-country differences are large. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan, the difference is less than half a calendar year.

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The female advantage in life expectancy was less in rich countries than it is today.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies at the birth in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two specific points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was once extremely small, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام it has increased substantially in the past.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.