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Why women live longer than men?

Wilford Tufnell (2022-04-18)

tafsiribnukatsirmuhaqqoq001b-11011501514Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women have a longer life span than men? Why is this difference growing over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors which all play a part in women who live longer than men, we don't know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the precise amount of weight, we are aware that at least a portion of the reason why women live longer than men do today however not as previously, has to have to do with the fact that certain important non-biological aspects have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl in every country can be expected to live for علامات الحمل بولد longer than her younger brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that, while the advantage for women exists everywhere, the global differences are significant. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan, the difference is less that half a year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was less in countries with higher incomes as compared to the present.
Let's now look at how the gender advantage in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at birth in the US in the years 1790-2014. Two aspects stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is growing: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was once tiny however, it has grown significantly over time.

When you click on the option "Change country by country' in the chart, you will be able to confirm that the two points apply to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.