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Why do women live longer than men?

Wilford Tufnell (2022-04-18)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women are more likely to live longer than men? Why has this advantage gotten larger in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support an informed conclusion. Although we know that there are behavioral, biological as well as environmental factors that all play a role in the longevity of women over men, we do not know how much each one contributes.

In spite of how much amount of weight, we are aware that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men in the present but not in the past, is to have to do with the fact that a number of key non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, ابر التخسيس like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her younger brother.

The chart below shows that while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences are often significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of less than half a calendar year.

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The female advantage in life expectancy was smaller in developed countries than it is now.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows men and women's life expectancies at birth in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be extremely small, but it grew substantially in the past century.

You can check if these principles are also applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.\u062a\u062d\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0644 \u062c\u0627\u064a\u0646\u0648 \u0645\u064a\u0643\u0648\u0632\u0627\u0644 Gyno Mikozal \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0648\u0627\u0626\u062f \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0636\u0631\u0627\u0631 ...