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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Sienna Wunderly (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men and why have these advantages gotten bigger over time? The evidence isn't conclusive and we only have incomplete answers. We know that biological, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don't know exactly how much the influence of each one of these factors is.

In spite of the weight, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men but not in the past, is to have to do with the fact that a number of fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام,, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can be expected to live for longer than her older brother.

It is interesting to note that although the female advantage exists across all countries, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan, the difference is just half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in the richer countries than it is today.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart compares the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two things stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men in the United States live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy used to be extremely small It has significantly increased in the past.

When you click on the option "Change country in the chart, verify that these two points are applicable to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.1 year ago