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Why are women living longer than men?

Meri Shockey (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women live longer than men? Why the advantage has grown as time passes? The evidence isn't conclusive and we're only able to provide limited solutions. We know there are behavioral, biological as well as environmental factors that play an integral role in women's longevity more than males, we aren't sure how much each one contributes.

In spite of the precise amount of weight, we are aware that at least a portion of the reason women live so much longer than men do today and not in the past, is to have to do with the fact that several important non-biological aspects have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line ; this means in all countries baby girls can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart shows that, although there is a women's advantage in all countries, the differences across countries could be significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men, while in Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.

In the richer countries, the longevity advantage for women was smaller
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows the men and women's life expectancies at the time of birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend: Men and women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is a widening gap: كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be extremely small however it increased dramatically in the past century.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries that have data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.