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Why do women live longer than men?

Kimberly Castleberry (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? And how the advantage has grown as time passes? The evidence isn't conclusive and we're only able to provide limited solutions. While we are aware that there are behavioral, biological and environmental factors that all play a role in women who live longer than males, it isn't clear the extent to which each factor plays a role.

We know that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. But it is not because of certain biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, اوضاع الجماع so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Pin on \u0623\u062f\u0648\u064a\u0629Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from any country can expect to live longer than her older brother.

It is interesting to note that while the female advantage exists in all countries, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women have a longer life span than males; while in Bhutan the gap is just half an hour.

In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's look at the way that female advantages in longevity has changed with time. The chart below shows men and women's life expectancies at birth in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men living in America are living longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy used to be extremely small however, it has grown significantly over time.

When you click on the option "Change country by country' in the chart, you will be able to determine if these two points also apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.