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Why are women living longer than men?

Kimberly Castleberry (2022-04-18)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men in the present and how does this benefit increase over time? The evidence is limited and we're left with only some answers. Although we know that there are biological, behavioral and علامات الحمل بولد environmental factors which play a significant role in women's longevity more than males, it isn't clear how much each factor contributes.

We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But this isn't because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

\u0627\u0641\u0636\u0644 \u0648\u0636\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0627\u0634\u0647\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0627\u062e\u064a\u0631\u0629 \u0645\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0645\u0644 | 3a2ilatiEverywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , which means that in every country that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart below shows that although there is a women's advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is less than half a calendar year.

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The advantage for women in life expectancy was less in countries with higher incomes that it is today.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two aspects stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. and women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be tiny, it has increased substantially in the past.

You can confirm that these points are also applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.