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Why do women live longer than men?

Kimberly Castleberry (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women live longer than men? What is the reason does this benefit increase as time passes? There isn't much evidence and we have only partial solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; However, we're not sure what the contribution of each of these factors is.

Independently of the exact amount of weight, we are aware that at a minimum, the reason why women live so much longer than men and not in the past, has to relate to the fact that a number of key non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , which means that in every country the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart shows that, while there is a female advantage across all countries, differences between countries are often significant. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half a calendar year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was less in developed countries than it is now.
Let's now look at how the advantage of women in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies at the birth in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two aspects stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. as well as women in the US live much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be extremely small however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.

You can confirm that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.