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Why do women live longer than men?

Kimberly Castleberry (2022-04-18)


1 year agoEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women live longer than men? What is the reason does this benefit increase over time? There isn't much evidence and we have only some solutions. We recognize that biological, behavioral and اوضاع الجماع environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, However, we're not sure how much the influence of each of these factors is.

In spite of how much number of pounds, we know that at least a portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men in the present and not in the past, is to be due to the fact that certain fundamental non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can be expected to live for longer than her brother.

The chart below shows that although there is a women's advantage in all countries, the differences across countries are often significant. In Russia women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan, the difference is less that half a year.

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The female advantage in life expectancy was smaller in the richer countries that it is today.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below illustrates the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at birth in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two specific points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be very small however, it has grown significantly over time.

It is possible to verify that these principles are also applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.