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Why are women living longer than men?

Marilou Slapoffski (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so more than men do today and why have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an absolute conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, However, we're not sure how strong the relative contribution of each factor is.

In spite of the number of pounds, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men in the present and not in the past, is to be due to the fact that some fundamental non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for شراء متابعين تيكتوك men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line ; it means that in all nations a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that while the female advantage is present everywhere, global differences are significant. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the gap is only half a year.

In wealthy countries, the advantage of women in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's now look at the way that female advantages in longevity has changed with time. The next chart shows the male and female lifespans at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very small however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

You can confirm that these are applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.