Комментарии читателей

Why do women live longer than men?

Bryant Dawbin (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men in the present and why is this difference growing over time? The evidence is limited and we have only partial answers. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; however, we aren't sure how much the influence to each of these variables is.

Independently of the exact amount, we can say that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men do today however not as previously, has to be due to the fact that a number of important non-biological aspects have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from every country could anticipate to live longer than her older brother.

This chart illustrates that, while there is a female advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries are often significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men, while in Bhutan the difference is just half an hour.

In wealthy countries, the women's advantage in longevity was smaller
We will now examine how the female advantage in longevity has changed with time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy at birth in the US in the years 1790 until 2014. Two aspects stand out.

First, there's an upward trend: Men and women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was tiny but it has risen significantly with time.

\u0623\u06cc\u0651\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062e\u0645\u0633\u06cc\u0646\u06cc.. \u0644\u0627 \u062a\u0646\u062f\u0645 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0634\u0631\u06cc\u0637 \u0630\u06a9\u0631\u06cc\u0627\u062a\u06a9!- \u0627\u0644\u0623\u062e\u0628\u0627\u0631 \u062b\u0642\u0627\u0641\u0629 ...You can confirm that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.