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Why are women living longer than men?

Noelia Rawson (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? What is the reason does this benefit increase as time passes? The evidence is sketchy and we're left with only partial answers. We know that biological, افضل شامبو وبلسم behavioral and افضل شامبو وبلسم environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we do not know what the contribution of each factor is.

In spite of how much amount, we can say that at least a portion of the reason why women live longer than men in the present but not in the past, has to relate to the fact that certain fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; this means in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart below shows that while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences could be significant. In Russia women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan the gap is only half a year.

In the richer countries, the female advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men in America live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very small, but it grew substantially over the last century.

32455078503_f790d6a32f.jpgIt is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.