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Why do women live longer than men?

Kimberly Castleberry (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men and how have these advantages gotten bigger over time? The evidence isn't conclusive and we only have incomplete answers. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; but we don't know exactly how strong the relative contribution to each of these variables is.

In spite of the amount of weight, we are aware that at least part of the reason women live so much longer than men however not as previously, is to have to do with the fact that certain significant non-biological elements have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, افضل شامبو وبلسم there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries baby girls can expect to live for افضل شامبو وبلسم longer than a newborn boy.1

It is interesting to note that although the female advantage exists in all countries, global differences are significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men; in Bhutan the gap is just half each year.

In countries with high incomes, the female advantage in longevity was not as great.
We will now examine how the gender advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies at birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men living in America are living longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be very modest, but it grew substantially in the past century.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.