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Why are women living longer than men?

Kimberly Castleberry (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so more than men do today and why does this benefit increase over time? The evidence is limited and we only have incomplete answers. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, but we don't know exactly what the contribution of each factor is.

In spite of how much amount, we can say that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men but not previously, is to relate to the fact that several significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and صبغ الشعر بالاسود relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - which means that in every country baby girls can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

This chart illustrates that, even though women enjoy an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries could be significant. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was much lower in rich countries as compared to the present.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two specific points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

\u062a\u062d\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0644 \u0645\u0627\u064a\u0643\u0648\u0647\u064a\u0644 400 Mycoheal \u062a\u062d\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0644 \u0645\u0647\u0628\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0644\u0641\u0637\u0631\u064a\u0627\u062a | \u0628\u064a\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0637\u0628The gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was tiny, it has increased substantially with time.

By selecting 'Change Country by country' in the chart, you can check that these two points are also applicable to the other countries having available information: صبغ الشعر بالاسود Sweden, France and the UK.