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Why are women living longer than men?

Analisa Wingfield (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present and why have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an informed conclusion. We recognize that biological, تحاميل مهبلية behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; However, we're not sure how much the influence to each of these variables is.

In spite of how much weight, we know that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men do today but not in the past, is to have to do with the fact that several fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl in every country can be expected to live for longer than her brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that, while the advantage for تحاميل مهبلية women is present everywhere, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men; in Bhutan the gap is just half an hour.

In wealthy countries, the advantage of women in longevity used to be smaller
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart plots the male and female lifespans at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. as well as women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be quite small It has significantly increased in the past.

Using the option 'Change country in the chart, check that these two points are applicable to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.