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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Jetta Tedesco (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so more than men do today, and why does this benefit increase in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we aren't sure what the contribution of each factor is.

4 months agoIn spite of how much amount of weight, we are aware that a large portion of the reason women live so much longer than men in the present however not as in the past, has to relate to the fact that some significant non-biological elements have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور men and women. We can see that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can be expected to live for longer than her younger brother.

The chart below shows that although there is a women's advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men, while in Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.

The advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was lower in rich countries as compared to the present.
We will now examine how the advantage of women in longevity has changed with time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two aspects stand out.

First, there's an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be extremely small however, it has increased significantly during the last century.

Using the option 'Change country from the chart, determine if these two points also apply to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.