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Why do women live longer than men?

Jetta Tedesco (2022-04-18)

\u062a\u0642\u0644\u064a\u0645 (44 images) - \u0635\u0648\u0631\u0629 SVG \u0026 \u0623\u064a\u0642\u0648\u0646\u0629. | SVG SilhEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men in the present and how has this advantage increased in the past? The evidence is sketchy and we're only able to provide incomplete solutions. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological as well as environmental factors that all play a role in the longevity of women over males, we aren't sure how much each factor contributes.

We are aware that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, صبغ الشعر بالاسود especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in every country can be expected to live for longer than her older brother.

The chart above shows that, while the advantage for women is present everywhere, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan, the difference is less that half a year.

The advantage for women in life expectancy was smaller in developed countries than it is today.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there's an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be very modest however it increased dramatically during the last century.

You can confirm that these are applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.