Комментарии читателей

Why do women have longer lives than men?

Sienna Wunderly (2022-04-18)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men and why has this advantage increased over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an informed conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we do not know how much the influence of each factor is.

We have learned that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. However it is not due to the fact that certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, العاب زوجية like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

2 years agoEverywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line , which means that in every country the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that the advantage of women exists in all countries, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the difference is less than half an hour.

__S.17__
__S.19__
In wealthy countries, the women's advantage in longevity was smaller
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at birth in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two things stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small but it increased substantially over the last century.

Using the option 'Change country' on the chart, confirm that the two points apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.