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Why do women live longer than men?

Boris Blair (2022-04-18)

\u0e23\u0e39\u0e1b\u0e20\u0e32\u0e1e : \u0e0a\u0e48\u0e32\u0e07\u0e15\u0e31\u0e14\u0e1c\u0e21, \u0e0a\u0e48\u0e32\u0e07\u0e17\u0e33\u0e1c\u0e21, \u0e17\u0e23\u0e07\u0e1c\u0e21, \u0e1c\u0e21\u0e43\u0e1a\u0e2b\u0e19\u0e49\u0e32 6240x4160 ...Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men in the present and how is this difference growing over time? The evidence is limited and we're only able to provide incomplete solutions. Although we know that there are biological, psychological as well as environmental factors which all play a part in women living longer than men, we don't know how much each one contributes.

We know that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. But it is not due to the fact that certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can expect to live longer than her brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that while the female advantage exists in all countries, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the difference is less than half each year.

In countries with high incomes, the advantage of women in longevity used to be smaller
Let's look at how the gender advantage in longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancies at birth in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two specific points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both genders in the United States live longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was extremely small however, it has grown significantly over time.

Using the option 'Change country' on the chart, you will be able to determine if these two points are also applicable to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.