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Why are women living longer than men?

Kimberly Castleberry (2022-04-18)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And why does this benefit increase in the past? The evidence isn't conclusive and we're left with only limited solutions. We know there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors which play a significant role in women who live longer than males, we aren't sure how much each factor contributes.

It is known that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However it is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in every country can be expected to live for longer than her younger brother.

This chart illustrates that, although women have an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men; in Bhutan the gap is less than half one year.

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The advantage women had in life expectancy was smaller in developed countries that it is today.
Let's examine how the female advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the time of birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام men living in America are living longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used be quite small however, it has increased significantly in the past century.

When you click on the option "Change country in the chart, you will be able to determine if these two points are applicable to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.