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Why do women live longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live more than men do today and why has this advantage increased over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an unambiguous conclusion. Although we know that there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors which all play a part in women who live longer than males, it isn't clear the extent to which each factor plays a role.

Independently of the exact amount of weight, we are aware that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men in the present however not as in the past, has to do with the fact that some fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور ( there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - it means that in all nations the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart below shows that although women have an advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women are 10 years older than men, while in Bhutan the difference is less than half an hour.

In wealthy countries, the advantage of women in longevity was not as great.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies at the birth in the US between 1790 until 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in America live longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be extremely small but it increased substantially over the last century.

4 years agoIt is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.