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Why do women live longer than men?

Jetta Tedesco (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women live longer than men? And how is this difference growing in the past? There isn't much evidence and we're left with only some answers. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we do not know how much the influence of each one of these factors is.

In spite of how much weight, we know that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men do today however not as previously, has to have to do with the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and زيوت تطويل الشعر relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, زيوت تطويل الشعر ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in every country can expect to live longer than her brothers.

The chart above shows that although the female advantage exists in all countries, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan the gap is less than half a calendar year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was smaller in the richer countries as compared to the present.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies when they were born in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two aspects stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders in the United States live longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be very small but it increased substantially during the last century.

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