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Why do women live longer than men?

Eartha Sidwell (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women live longer than men? What is the reason has this advantage gotten larger over time? The evidence is limited and we only have partial solutions. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, however, زيوت تطويل الشعر we aren't sure how much the influence to each of these variables is.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason why women live longer than men today and not previously, has to do with the fact that some significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and زيوت تطويل الشعر women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

This graph shows that although women have an advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half a calendar year.

In wealthy countries, the advantage of women in longevity was smaller
Let's look at how the female advantage in longevity has changed over time. The next chart shows the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two aspects stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Women and men in America have longer lives than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small, but it grew substantially during the last century.

Using the option 'Change country by country' in the chart, you can determine if these two points apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.