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Why women live longer than men?

Raina Shoebridge (2022-04-18)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men in the present, and why is this difference growing over time? There isn't much evidence and we have only partial answers. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; but we don't know exactly what the contribution of each factor is.

In spite of the number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men in the present however not as previously, has to relate to the fact that a number of key non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her brother.

The chart below shows that although there is a women's advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be substantial. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the difference is less than half an hour.

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The female advantage in life expectancy was less in the richer countries than it is today.
Let's examine how the gender advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the time of birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. and women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور there's an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be extremely small however it increased dramatically over the last century.

Using the option 'Change country in the chart, you will be able to determine if these two points apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.